According to the accelerated convergence concept, as technology continues to grow exponentially, interactions between different technological subgroups will create highly interesting opportunities.
Exponential technologies can be defined as those technologies that allow change at an accelerated speed. This transformation of the world is being facilitated by cost reductions and substantial progress in areas such as computing power, bandwidth, and data storage.
One of the reasons that the impact of exponential technologies will be so big is due to the effect known as accelerated convergence. According to this effect, as the technology continues to grow exponentially, the interactions between the different subgroups of the technology will create extremely interesting opportunities.
In studies and articles it is common to find certain diagrammatic techniques to represent the hierarchy and the relationships between three exponential technologies, artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning and deep learning.
The first set corresponds to AI and consists of algorithms that mimic human intelligence with the ability to solve problems in ways we consider smart. Inside we find machine learning, with algorithms that analyze data, learn from it, and then apply what they have learned by taking informed decisions. In turn, deep inside, we have deep learning consisting of neural network algorithms that learn the important characteristics of data on their own and are able to adapt through repetitive training in order to discover patterns.
However, it is critical to explore other exponential technologies that will be critical to driving accelerated convergence and innovation. The following is a simple description of 20 technologies that will nurture a multitude of exponential innovations and that the 21st century innovator must know:
1 – Virtual assistants are software agents that provide assistance to users by delivering information and automating tasks. In the next decade, they will become the main channel through which people will obtain information, products and services.
2– Human augmentation (cyborgs) in the medical world is perhaps the best known to society. Prostheses usually supplement the damaged or lost bodies. However, by means of bionic implants it is possible to imitate the original function of the organs or parts of the body and even increase them.
3 – Automation can be defined as the technology by which a process or procedure can be carried out with minimal human assistance. Various studies and jobs have confirmed that, as jobs will be destroyed; many new jobs will also be created in activities that have not yet been invented.
4 – Big data is a concept related to large-scale data sets so complex that they require the use of non-traditional computer applications for their processing. Big data and artificial intelligence projects have become indistinguishable as machine learning or deep learning is becoming increasingly popular as techniques for handling large volumes of data.
5 – Biotechnology is the application of science and engineering principles for treatment of organic and inorganic materials by biological systems to produce goods and services. Products will be developed to reduce aging process, build human parts, replace defective organs and tissues, and edit diseases of our genomes.
6 – Blockchain is a system in which a growing list of records is linked and encrypted to protect your security and privacy. Blockchain is maintained on multiple computers that are linked on a peer-to-peer network.
7 – Cybersecurity deals with protecting computing infrastructures and everything related to them. The rise of big data and the power of machine learning techniques, increasingly widespread, are the greatest risk to our privacy and security.
8 – Smart city is a concept that arises from an urban area that uses different types of electronic Internet of Things (IoT) sensors to collect data and then use this data to manage assets and resources efficiently.
9 – Quantum computing takes advantage of quantum mechanical phenomena to manipulate information by means of quantum bits or cubits. You can consider all possible solutions to a problem and rule out those that don’t work.
10 – Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computing services without direct active user administration. There are three types: private, public and hybrid cloud. It includes categories such as software as a service (SaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) or infrastructure as a service (IaaS).
11 – Drones are unmanned aerial vehicles that have a wide variety of shapes, sizes and characteristics. Backed by cloud services and big data techniques, drones’ data collection capabilities have the potential to alter the competitive dynamics of the information landscape.
12 – Hologram is an image that appears to be three-dimensional and can be seen with the naked eye. Advances in digital cameras, display technologies, high-speed Internet connectivity, and accelerated convergence have opened new business and artistic perspectives for holograms.
13 – 3D printing has evolved from creating functional or aesthetic prototypes to manufacturing high-precision products within the industrial world. 3D printing can be defined as a series of various processes in which the material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object.
14 – Brain-computer interface is a direct communication path between an improved or connected brain and an external device. We are expanding our sensory, physical and intellectual capacities through technological implants.
15 – Internet of Things (IoT) can be defined as the interconnection of physical devices and objects through the Internet. In this type of interaction, anything can be connected, from sensors and mechanical devices to everyday objects.
16 – Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular and supramolecular scale. Their goal is to create cleaner, better, cheaper, and smarter products.
17 – Virtual and augmented reality can be defined as a computer generated interactive experience that takes place in a simulated environment. Augmented reality is an interactive experience of a real-world environment where objects residing in the real world are enhanced by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes through multiple sensory modalities.
18 – Advanced robotics can be defined as an artificially created system, designed, built and implemented to perform tasks or services for people. There are two categories, industrial robots and service robots.
19 – Computer telepathy suggests that it will be possible to capture a thought and share it with the world. In 2019, six scientists from Washington State University managed to interconnect three brains to play Tetris with the mind. The system is called BrainNet and works as a direct collaboration interface between brains.
20 – Autonomous vehicles are vehicles capable of imitating human capacities for handling and control. They perceive the external environment and navigate accordingly. Automation level 5 is that level at which the human driver becomes a passenger.